Analytics, AI/ML

NLP in the Public Sector

Cogent Infotech
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NLP in the Public Sector (with examples in different industries)

Natural Language Processing (NLP) is a fascinating artificial intelligence (AI) area. It can understand and analyze human language in ways that weren't possible before. It lets people understand and respond to large amounts of unstructured data. Posts on social media, emails, and customer feedback are all examples of unstructured data.

But how does NLP help the government? Government agencies and public services manage and analyze a lot of text-based data. It includes public records, legal documents, and comments from the public. The information helps people make decisions and improve services. But it would be impossible to look at everything by hand.

NLP comes into play here. By automating the analysis of this data, NLP can find insights that are hard to find manually. It helps the government make better decisions and improve public services and sectors.

This article will discuss how natural language processing (NLP) is used in the public sector. It will also talk about problems and challenges that NLP brings up.

Use Cases of NLP in Public Sector domains

NLP in Public Healthcare

Clinical Documentation

Clinical administration involves documenting patients' illnesses, treatments, and results. With so much information, finding important patterns or insights often gets difficult.

For instance, when a person with a long-term illness goes to a hospital for treatment, they undergo several procedures. The information is written down in the patient's clinical record.

The hospital then, needs to look at this data to find patterns in the patient's condition and give them the best care possible. Without NLP, this process would take longer and may also go wrong. It is because healthcare workers would have to look through a patient's record manually to pull out relevant information.

NLP can help by automatically reviewing all the documentation and picking out the crucial bits.

Patient Care

Based on the medical history, NLP can help find patients at high risk for certain conditions. The information can be used to make sure that each person gets the necessary care and interventions to provide healthcare services.

For example, NLP can be used by a doctor to look at a patient's electronic health record (EHR). The information can be about the patient's health, family background, and past medical records. The provider can then use this information to create a personalized care plan for the patient. This program may include suggestions for patient lifestyle changes, medications, and regular checks.

It can also keep track of the patient's progress in real-time and spot possible problems. For instance, if a patient has diabetes, NLP will track their recent blood sugar levels. If the levels aren't normal, it is a sign of an impending health crisis.

This early intervention goes a long way in preventing hospitalizations or trips to the emergency room.

Drug Discovery

To find new drugs, scientists read scientific papers, look for patterns, and try to guess how well new drugs will work. NLP can help speed up this process.

For example, NLP can be used by a pharmaceutical company to look at published studies and clinical trial results about a certain disease. The NLP software can find patterns and links between the disease and different drugs or treatments. Based on this analysis, the company can make new drugs that work better with fewer side effects.

Clinical Trials

Clinical trials are the only way to determine if a new drug or treatment is safe and effective. As a follow-up to the drugs found, NLP can find potential safety issues with drug combinations. It can help researchers make treatment plans that are safer and more effective.

NLP in Law Enforcement

Criminal Investigations

NLP techniques can be used to examine a suspect's language patterns and determine if they were involved in a criminal act. It can also be used to find links between people who are all involved in the same crime. This helps law enforcement build stronger cases.

For example, when looking at the history of a complicated criminal case, important clues often get missed. In this case, NLP can quickly look at a suspect's social media posts, comments, and messages to find useful information. It includes location, time, and other details that could help link the suspect to the crime. Such automation ultimately helps detectives solve cases faster.

Predictive Policing

Predictive policing is the act of using data to understand in advance where to deploy police. NLP helps in predictive policing by looking for patterns and trends in large amounts of crime-related data. The analysis can help law enforcement agencies predict criminal acts faster and more efficiently.

NLP in Department of Education

Enhancing Writing and Reading Skills

The way students learn to write and read is changing because of NLP technology. Students can get immediate feedback on their writing mechanics, grammar, and structure with NLP solutions. This will help them learn how to write better.

For example, online platforms nowadays use NLP to instantly suggest ways to improve vocabulary and sentence structure. NLP algorithms can also figure out where a person's reading skills are weak and give them automatic feedback on how to get better.

Motivating Behavior

NLP can be used to keep track of and analyze how interested students act in their lessons. By analyzing how professors and students talk in the classroom, NLP technology can figure out what they are thinking. This information can be used to change how lessons are taught and make them more interesting.

Instant Query Solving

NLP-based chatbots are changing the way students learn and interact with educational content. These chatbots serve as robot teachers, using conversational AI to explain concepts and answer questions.

For example, some apps use NLP-based chatbots to teach users new languages. The chatbots respond to the user's spoken or written inputs, giving immediate feedback on pronunciation and grammar. Moreover, these chatbots can give real-time feedback to students, which makes learning more interactive and fun.

NLP in Public Administration

Citizen Engagement

NLP-based chatbots and virtual assistants can be used by government agencies to improve citizen engagement. It can answer citizens' questions and provide information on public services and help with paperwork.

These virtual assistants can understand natural language queries and provide relevant information, making the process more efficient and user-friendly.

Sentiment Analysis

NLP algorithms can look at news articles, and social media feeds to figure out how people react to different things. This technology gives public agencies a great chance to plan policies that are in line with what the public wants.

For example, they can use NLP-based sentiment analysis to find out what the public thinks about immigration and border control. The results of this analysis can then be used to improve public policies and make them more popular. Since these policies are fact-based, they help government analyze and predict the public mood.

Fraud Detection

NLP algorithms can analyze large volumes of text-based data to detect fraudulent activities, such as money laundering and tax evasion. For example, federal revenue agencies can use NLP algorithms to analyze tax returns and identify potential fraud. NLP can also be used to analyze public procurement data and detect corruption and collusion.

Traffic Management

Traffic management is an important aspect of transportation planning in cities, and NLP can be a valuable tool in this area. NLP algorithms work by analyzing data from various sources, such as traffic sensors and social media. And by doing so, they can help identify congested areas and traffic patterns.

For example, the administration of major cities in the US uses NLP-powered algorithms to analyze real-time traffic data to predict future traffic conditions. This helps the city's transportation department make informed decisions on different aspects. These include road design, signal timings, and other factors that affect traffic flow. By implementing these changes, the city can reduce congestion and improve overall efficiency.

NLP can help transportation planners figure out different events that affect traffic flow and look at traffic patterns. It can also be used to look at how big events like parades and protests will affect traffic by analyzing social media feeds. This lets the department make real-time changes to traffic flow. Examples include shutting down certain roads or changing traffic light timings.

NLP in Environmental Protection

Climate Change

NLP technology can be used to monitor the impact of climate change by analyzing satellite data to identify trends in deforestation, wildfires, and other environmental factors. For instance, agencies like NASA uses NLP algorithms to analyze satellite data on changes in vegetation cover and carbon dioxide emissions. This helps them track global climate change patterns.

This data can also be used by governments and organizations to develop better policies to protect the environment and mitigate the impact of climate change.

Pollution Monitoring

NLP can also be used to find areas with high pollution levels by analyzing data from sensors and other sources. States can look at air quality data from sensors all over the city to find the sources of pollution and take steps to lower pollution levels. This information can help governments take steps to improve air quality.

Challenges of NLP in the Public Sector


Like humans, NLP algorithms can be biased. If these biases aren't noticed and fixed, they can lead to discriminatory results. For example, if an NLP algorithm for screening job applications was trained on a biased dataset, it could unfairly reject some applicants.


NLP often involves looking at the personal information of individuals. This can cause privacy issues if not managed properly. It's important to make sure that this data is collected and used in an ethical way that doesn't break the law.


Even for experts in the field, NLP algorithms can be hard to understand. Because of this lack of openness, it could get hard to find biases or mistakes in these algorithms. This, in turn, can lead to unintended results. Hence, it is important to come up with ways to test and evaluate NLP algorithms to make sure they are accurate and clear.

Technical Infrastructure

NLP technology requires significant computing power and storage. This may be a challenge for some government agencies that lack the necessary technical infrastructure. Additionally, maintaining and updating NLP systems can be costly and time-consuming, making it difficult for agencies to keep up with the latest advancements in the field.

Ethical Implications of NLP in the Public Sector

When NLP is used in the public sector, there are a lot of moral questions that need to be carefully thought through. Some of the most important ethical concerns about NLP in the public sector are:


One of the main concerns is fairness, as it is important to ensure that NLP is used fairly and equitably without leading to discriminatory outcomes.


Another important aspect is accountability. Individuals and institutions must responsibly develop and deploy NLP algorithms.

Informed Consent

It is important to ensure that individuals are informed about how their data is being used for NLP applications and obtain their consent for this use.

In the end, it is up to the government, institutions, and developers to deal with these ethical issues and make sure that NLP is used fairly and responsibly. By doing so, the government can get the most out of NLP while minimizing the side effects.


NLP could be used in many areas of the public sector. These include law enforcement, education, health care, government, transportation, environmental protection, etc. Slowly, NLP is becoming a more useful tool for analyzing a lot of text-based data quickly. In the end, it helps organizations and governments to make better decisions.

Cogent Infotech helps government agencies and organizations make better decisions, identify and maximize opportunities, maximize efficiency and cost savings, and create sustainable practices. To read more articles about NLP and related emerging technologies, please visit our website

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