Workforce Solutions
November 13, 2023

Women and Workplace 2023: A detailed guide

Cogent Infotech
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November 13, 2023

Observing International Women's Day serves as a reminder of the importance of women's rights and their role in society. Despite significant progress over the years, women still face various barriers in the workplace, including discrimination, bias, unequal pay, and limited career advancement opportunities. Women's participation in the labor force is essential for achieving gender equality and economic growth. It is crucial to address the issues women face in the workforce.

Representation of women by corporate roles and race (in Percentage)

The representation and experiences of women in the workforce have significant implications for the economy, society, and individual well-being. Research has shown that gender diversity in the workplace leads to improved decision-making, innovation, and financial performance. Closing the gender gap in employment could boost global GDP by up to $12 trillion by 2025. 

Women account for 58.4% of the total labor force in the United States, as of 2022. Even with high overall participation, the gender pay gap persists, with women earning 82 cents for every dollar earned by men. The more worrying fact is that women are more likely to work in low-paying jobs. Additionally, there is a scarcity of Women leaders, with only 8.2% of CEOs in the S&P 500 being women.

The eighth Women in the Workplace report from McKinsey claimed that women leaders are switching jobs at an unprecedented rate. As women are already underrepresented in management positions, the trend is particularly worrying as companies are struggling to retain women leaders. Keeping in mind the 'broken rung' that has stopped women from moving up the ranks towards entering management positions, the trend of women leaders switching jobs fast can emerge as a challenge for the global workforce. It is important to understand the reasons behind this trend and what can be done to improve the situation on-ground.

Understanding Women in the Workforce: A Historical Context

The history of women in the workforce dates back to the early 19th century when women began working in textile mills and factories. However, women's participation in the labor force was limited and often frowned upon. It was not until the early 20th century that women began to enter professions traditionally reserved for men, such as law, medicine, and engineering. During World War I, women's participation in the workforce increased as they took on jobs previously held by men who were serving in the military.

 World War II had a significant impact on women's participation in the workforce. With millions of men serving in the military, women were called upon to fill essential roles in factories and other industries. The government launched campaigns to encourage women to join the workforce, and by the end of the war, more than six million women had entered the workforce. The war experience challenged traditional gender roles and paved the way for women to pursue careers outside the home.

The feminist movement of the 1960s and 1970s brought attention to the discrimination and bias faced by women in the workforce. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Equal Pay Act of 1963 were significant milestones in the fight for women's rights in the workplace. 

These laws prohibited discrimination based on race, sex, religion, and national origin and required equal pay for equal work. The feminist movement also highlighted the need for maternity leave, flexible work arrangements, and other policies to support working mothers.

 While progress has been made, women still face significant challenges in the workforce, including unequal pay, limited career advancement opportunities, and harassment and discrimination.

Women's Labor Force Participation Since 1950

What is the current reality of Women in the Workforce?

The current status of women in the workforce can be best understood by following a structured approach toward various aspects. 

Representation of Women in the Workforce

Although women's participation in the workforce has increased over the years, they are still underrepresented in many industries, particularly in leadership positions. Women represent 44.5% of the US workforce as of September 2022 but only held 35% of senior leadership positions. Furthermore, women are more likely to work in low-wage industries such as retail and hospitality and are underrepresented in higher-paying fields such as technology and finance.

While global organizations are dealing with the problem of the representation of women, the issue of women leaders leaving their companies is expected to create a pipeline problem for these companies. To put it in numbers, for every woman that is promoted to the next level from the director position, two women directors choose to leave the company. 

Pay and Benefits Disparities

Despite efforts to close the gender pay gap, women still earn less than men on average. In 2020, women earned just 82 cents for every dollar earned by men. This gap is even wider for women of color, with Black women earning just 63 cents and Latina women earning just 55 cents for every dollar earned by white, non-Hispanic men. Women are also less likely to have access to benefits such as paid leave, retirement plans, and healthcare.

Even with the consistent efforts of several organizations, the 'broken rung' continues to remain broken. For every 100 men that move up from entry-level positions to management roles, only 82 women of color are promoted.

Impact of Race and Ethnicity on Women's Experiences in the Workforce

The experiences of women in the workforce are not uniform and are heavily influenced by race and ethnicity. Women of color face unique challenges, including discrimination and bias based on both gender and race. They are more likely to work in low-wage jobs and face significant barriers to career advancement. Black women and Latina women, in particular, experience higher rates of unemployment and are less likely to hold leadership positions.

Glass Ceiling and Barriers to Advancement

The "glass ceiling" refers to the invisible barriers that prevent women from advancing to the highest levels of leadership in organizations. While progress has been made, women are still significantly underrepresented in leadership positions. Women hold just 15% of CEO positions in big companies. Barriers to advancement include bias and discrimination, lack of mentorship and sponsorship, and a lack of policies and programs to support women's career development. 

Why are Women Leaders Leaving Jobs?

There are several reasons why women leaders are choosing to leave their jobs. Here are the key reasons why women leaders are switching jobs at a fast pace:

Stronger Headwinds

Women leaders are working as hard as men and are as eager to be promoted to the next level. However, the key issue being faced is that they face stronger headwinds as compared to men. For instance, women leaders are far more likely to face a scenario in which they are told that they are not qualified for the job. At the same time, women leaders are twice more likely as men leaders to be considered as someone junior. Women leaders are also more likely to state that their characteristics, like being a parent or their gender itself, can play a role in being denied a raise, promotion, or chance to get ahead. 

Under-recognized and Overworked

Women are often found doing more for the DEI ecosystem in an organization as compared to male leaders. While these efforts help to improve employee retention and motivation in an organization, these efforts are hardly recognized in any organization. Close to 40% of women leaders are of the view that their efforts toward fostering the DEI ecosystem are not recognized in performance reviews. As a result, women leaders spending their time and effort on issues that are left unrecognized makes it difficult for them to advance. Therefore, it is not surprising that 43% of women leaders suffer in their jobs as compared to 31% of men.

Seeking a Different Culture

Women leaders are more likely to switch jobs in search of more flexibility and look for an ecosystem where their employer is more committed to issues like DEI and employee well-being. When put in numbers, women leaders are 1.5 times more likely to switch jobs to work for a company that is serious about DEI issues. As a result, companies that are not moving the needle on the DEI and employee well-being front are finding it difficult to recruit and retain women leaders. 

Importance of Flexibility and Remote Work for Women in the Workforce

After the pandemic, the global workforce, including the US, successfully experimented with remote work, flexibility, and remote work continues to rank high on the agenda of women leaders. The companies are also open to keeping the ecosystem flexible for the workforce. For instance, only 7% of companies plan to reduce the hybrid or remote work opportunities in the next 12 months, while 32% of companies are confident that these opportunities will continue to expand.

Women leaders want to have the choice of deciding between remote, hybrid, and on-site work ecosystems. It has been seen that when women employees are given a choice, they are more likely to be motivated and easily retained in the workforce.

As the remote work option is more important for women, with one in 10 women wanting to work on-site, it is one of the most important reasons for women joining and continuing to work in an organization. Women employees have stated that they face fewer microaggressions and more psychological safety during hybrid work options.

While remote and hybrid work options are creating new opportunities for women, it does not come without their set of challenges. While 71% of HR leaders state that remote work has been able to help their organizations hire and retain more employees, a majority of them are also concerned that the employees working remotely feel less connected to the team. It is also feared that employees who work completely remotely, who are most likely females, are expected to get lesser opportunities for advancement and recognition.

It is important to understand that remote and hybrid work can provide a reprieve from bias, but it can't be used as a substitute for systemic change. It is critical that women feel included and part of the organization. Organizations need to focus on building a truly inclusive culture.

How can Companies Navigate the Shift to Remote and Hybrid Work?

Companies need to do a lot more than just tweaking a few old policies to navigate the shift to remote and hybrid work. There is a need to rethink how work is done. Companies can focus on the following areas: 

Clear Communication

Companies should adopt an approach of clear communication. It should be communicated who can work remotely and why. It will help employees to understand that they are not being treated unfairly. At the same time, specifying guidelines for day-to-day operations under remote and hybrid ecosystems will help organizations to stay transparent.

For instance, employees in the engineering and marketing department may get more opportunities to work remotely as compared to other functions like operations, supply chain, and administration. The reasons should be clearly stated to avoid any confusion in the team.

Gather Regular Feedback

Another step that companies can take to stay ahead of the curve is to take regular feedback from employees. It is important to understand what steps are working as expected and for the benefit of the employees. It is also equally important to consider which steps need further improvement.

Foster Employee Connectedness

Companies should go the extra mile to increase connection among employees, even during hybrid and remote ecosystems. It is critical that new opportunities are created for team bonding and fostering connections.

Create Purposeful in-person Work Opportunities.

Employees are no longer willing to come to the office for work that can be done from home. As a result, companies are expected to create opportunities that are purposeful when it comes to in-person work.

For example, high-level planning and collaboration among employees can be considered a good opportunity for in-person meetings. Such opportunities must be created thoughtfully.

Offer a Level Playing Field

Organizations need to ensure that employees who are working remotely get the same opportunities that the employees working from the office are getting. Equal opportunities for sponsorship and mentorship must be offered. There should be enough checks and balances in place so that hybrid and remote employees are not at a disadvantage.

Benefits of Gender Diversity in the Workplace

Diversity and inclusion have a significant impact on the workplace, especially gender diversity. Gender diversity means having a fair and balanced representation of men and women in the workplace. Here are some benefits of having gender diversity in the workplace:

Improved Innovation and Decision-making

Gender diversity can lead to innovative ideas and better decision-making. When diverse teams come together, they bring different perspectives and experiences that can help generate new ideas and solve complex problems. This diversity can lead to better business outcomes, as companies with more diverse teams are more innovative and successful.

Increased Profitability and Performance

Gender diversity can positively impact a company's bottom line. Studies have shown that companies with more diverse teams tend to be more profitable and perform better than those with less diversity. This is because diverse teams can better reflect the needs and preferences of diverse customers and stakeholders, leading to better business decisions.

Better Employee Engagement and Retention

Gender diversity can also lead to better employee engagement and retention. When employees see that their workplace values diversity and inclusivity, they are more likely to feel valued and engaged in their work. This can lead to higher levels of job satisfaction and a lower turnover rate, which can save companies money and resources.

Strategies for Promoting Gender Diversity and Inclusion in the Workplace

Promoting gender diversity and inclusion in the workplace requires intentional effort and a commitment to change. Here are some strategies that companies can implement to promote gender diversity and inclusion in the workplace 

Developing Inclusive Policies and Practices

Companies should strive to develop policies and practices that are inclusive and promote diversity. This includes implementing policies that support work-life balance, flexible work arrangements, and equal pay for equal work. It also involves creating a culture that values and respects differences in gender, race, ethnicity, and other identities.

Providing Training and Education to Address Bias and Promote Inclusion

Companies should provide training and education for employees to address unconscious bias and promote inclusive behaviors.

For example, organizations can include training on diversity and inclusion topics, such as microaggressions, stereotype threat, and cultural awareness. It can also include training on how to be an ally for underrepresented groups.

Creating Mentorship and Sponsorship Programs

Mentorship and sponsorship programs can provide women and other underrepresented groups with access to guidance, support, and networking opportunities. These programs can help to increase representation in leadership positions and promote career advancement.

Setting Goals and Holding Leaders Accountable

Companies should set clear and measurable goals for gender diversity and inclusion and hold leaders accountable for progress toward these goals.

For instance, companies can include tracking diversity metrics, such as representation in leadership positions and pay equity, and holding leaders responsible for making progress toward these goals.


Gender diversity and inclusion are critical components of a healthy and successful workforce. Companies that prioritize diversity and inclusion in their hiring practices, policies, and culture stand to reap numerous benefits, including improved innovation, performance, and employee engagement.

These are some of the key trends in Women in the Workforce. Companies must take concrete steps to promote gender diversity and inclusion in the workforce. This includes developing inclusive policies and practices, providing education and training to address bias, and creating mentorship and sponsorship programs to support the advancement of underrepresented groups. By prioritizing gender equity in the workplace, companies can create a more equitable and successful workforce for all employees.

Cogent Infotech helps organizations with tech consulting and workforce solutions. Read more informative articles and blogs here.

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